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Citation Guide: Chicago/Turabian Style

Help with citing your sources for a research paper.

Turabian Guide

Below is the authoritative source for citing sources using Turabian style.

This book is available at the MC Speed Library at the 2nd floor Reference Desk.

Overview

Turabian is a style of writing and formatting that was created by Kate Turbian. It is adapted from the University of Chicago's 'Chicago' style of citation and is most commonly used in the social sciences.

Turabian covers two different forms for citation:

  • notes-bibliography style, or simply bibliography style used in the humanities and social sciences).  Sources are cited by using footnotes (or endnotes) and a bibliography.
  • parenthetical citations-reference list style, or reference list style (used in some social sciences and in the natural/physical sciences).  Sources are cited by using parenthetical author/date references in the text and a reference list.

THE EXAMPLES FOUND ON THESE PAGES ARE FORMATTED USING THE NOTES-BIBLIOGRAPHY STYLE.

IF YOU ARE UNSURE WHICH FORM TO USE, CONSULT YOUR PROFESSOR.

History

The Chicago and Turabian styles are nearly identical.

Kate Turabian, the dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago for over 30 years, developed her guide for students and researchers writing papers, theses, and dissertations. Her manual is based on the University of Chicago Press's Manual of Style and departs from it in few places. "Turabian," as her guide is called, synthesizes the rules most important for students' papers and other scholarly research not intended for publication, and omits some of the publishing details and options that "Chicago" provides. 

Differences

The differences between the Chicago and Turabian styles are mainly seen in how notes are numbered. 

In Turabian style, use superscript 1 for endnote and footnote numbers in the text and at the beginning of each note.

In Chicago style, the note number in the text is in parentheses (1) and is followed by a period and space in the note, as in the following example:

1. Chicago

1Turabian 

Turabian Tutor

Designed to help students properly cite in Turabian Style. 

Created by Jerry N. Barlow, Sandy Vandercook, & Eddie Campbell, New Orleans Theological Seminary

Websites

Additional information on Chicago/Turabian style may be found at these websites: