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English Education & English Writing: Sample Articles

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​Below, you will see examples of previously conducted linguistic studies. If the study interests you, feel free to utilize these sources for your own research project! 


  • Howell, Jennifer L., and Traci A. Giuliano. “The Effect of Expletive Use and Team Gender Perceptions of Coaching Effectiveness.” Journal of Sport Behavior, vol. 34, no. 1, Mar. 2011, pp. 69–81. EBSCOhost,
    • Although many sports fans believe that expletive use is a typical part of coaching, there is a dearth of research on the perceptions of such behavior. As such, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that expletive use by coaches is more accepted when it is directed at a male team than when it is directed at a female team. As part of a 2 (Expletive Use: Present or Absent) x 2 (Team Gender: Female or Male) between-subjects design, 60 participants (30 women, 30 men) read and gave reactions to a fictitious speech ostensibly given by a male basketball coach to his team. Consistent with predictions, participants rated the speech to be less effective when it contained expletives than when it did not. Furthermore, when the speech was directed at a female team, male participants considered it even less effective if it contained expletives than if it did not. By contrast, when the speech was directed at a male team, male participants rated the speech to be equally effective, regardless of whether or not it contained expletives. Female participants did not exhibit this effect. The present study suggests that expletive use in coaching may be an ineffective strategy, and reveals that males and females have different expectations and opinions of expletive use in coaching. Thus, coaches should be aware of the possible negative ramifications of their use of profanity, particularly with female athletes.

  • Hosman, Lawrence A., and Susan A. Siltanen. “Hedges, Tag Questions, Message Processing, and Persuasion.Journal of Language & Social Psychology, vol. 30, no. 3, Sept. 2011, pp. 341–349. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1177/0261927X11407169.
    • This study explored the effects of tag questions, hedges, and argument quality on receivers’ perceptions of a speaker, perceptions of message quality, cognitive responses, and attitude change. The results showed that tag questions and argument quality directly affected speaker and message quality perceptions and cognitive responses. They also interacted to directly affect perceptions of the speaker’s power and credibility. Mediational analyses also showed that tag questions and argument quality had indirect effects on attitude change. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the cognitive processing of and research on linguistic markers of powerlessness.

  • Holt, Yolanda Feimster. “Mechanisms of Vowel Variation in African American English.Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, vol. 61, no. 2, Feb. 2018, pp. 197–209. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1044/2017pass:[_]JSLHR-S-16-0375.
    • It is expected, as described in Labov (2011), that language change occurs in a broad and relatively uniform fashion by groups that share the same cultural history independent of their face-to-face interaction. Similarly, White et al. (1998) assert that the communication goals of African Americans are both clear communication and social acceptance, and these goals influence speech production. Therefore, as African Americans have a shared linguistic history but currently live in different communities and experience different linguistic experiences, we should expect that, over time, AAE will develop regional similarity to WAE to maintain clear communication and social acceptance but keep its distinctiveness due to the shared cultural history of its users

  • Syamimi, Turiman, Amelia Leong, and Fauziah Hassan. “Are Men More Apologetic Than Women?” Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum. 2013, pp. 953-964
    • CONTEXT OF THE STUDY According to Allan (2011, p. 5), language is a representation of culture and it is a culturally specific form of communication. Therefore, it is important to study how different speech acts are used in different cultures. The present study comes with the purpose of identifying the strategies used by the Malaysian respondents in apologizing and their frequency of occurrence in relation to gender. The study attempts to answer the following questions: 1. Do men and women differ in their use of apology strategies? 2. Do women differ in the types of apology strategy used when apologizing to a man compared to a woman? 3. Do men differ in the types of apology strategy used when apologizing to a man compared to a woman?

  • Leaper, Campbell, and Rachael D. Robnett. “Women Are More Likely Than Men to Use Tentative Language, Aren’t They? A Meta-Analysis Testing for Gender Differences and Moderators.” Psychology of Women Quarterly, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 129-142, 2011. Sage, doi: 10.1177/0361684310392728.**Meta-Analysis studying previously conducted studies about the topic; more sources and studies found within this source**
    • Robin Lakoff proposed that women are more likely than men to use tentative speech forms (e.g., hedges, qualifiers/disclaimers, tag questions, intensifiers). Based on conflicting results from research testing Lakoff’s claims, a meta-analysis of studies testing gender differences in tentative language was conducted. The sample included 29 studies with 39 independent samples and a combined total sample of 3,502 participants. Results revealed a statistically significant but small effect size (d¼.23), indicating that women were somewhat more likely than men to use tentative speech. In addition, methodological moderators (operational definition, observation length, recording method, author gender, and year of study) and contextual moderators (gender composition, familiarity, student status, group size, conversational activity, and physical setting) were tested. Effect sizes were significantly larger in studies that (a) observed longer (vs. shorter) conversations, (b) sampled undergraduates (vs. other adults), (c) observed groups (vs. dyads), and (d) occurred in research labs (vs. other settings). The moderator effects are interpreted as supporting proposals that women’s greater likelihood of tentative language reflects interpersonal sensitivity rather than a lack of assertiveness. In addition, the influence of self-presentation concerns in the enactment of gender-typed behavior is discussed