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Writing Center: Types of Clauses

A guide to information to help you research and write more effectively.

Two Kinds of Clauses

 

TWO KINDS OF CLAUSES

1.   Independent Clause

2.   Dependent Clause

  • The cat threw the dog out of the window.
  • The other cat laughed.
  • The dog did not die.
  • After the cat threw the dog out of the window…
  • Because the cat threw the dog out the window…
  • Even though the cat threw the dog out the window…

NOTE: A dependent clause that is not connected to an independent clause is a fragment.

Four Kinds of Sentences

FOUR KINDS OF SENTENCES

1.   Simple

3.Complex

 Description:

  • ONE independent clause
  • NO dependent clause

 Description:

  • ONE independent clause
  • ONE OR MORE dependent clauses.

 Examples:

  • The cat threw the dog out the window.
  • The other cat laughed.
  • The dog did not die.

 Examples:

  • After the cat threw the dog out the window, the other cat laughed.
  • Because the cat threw the dog out the window, the other cat laughed.
  • Even though the dog did not die, the other cat laughed.
  • The dog did not die while the other cat laughed.
  • The other cat laughed because the dog did not die.
  • Although the dog did not die after the cat threw the dog threw the window, the other cat laughed.

2.   Compound

4.Compound-Complex

 Description:

  • TWO or more independent clauses
  • NO dependent clause

 Description:

  • TWO OR MORE independent clauses
  • ONE OR MORE dependent clauses

 Examples:

  • The cat threw the dog out the window, and the other cat laughed.
  • The cat threw the dog out the window; the other cat laughed.
  • The cat threw the dog out the window; however, the dog did not die.

 Examples:

  • The cat threw the dog out the window, but the other cat laughed after the dog did not die.
  • If the dog did not die, the cat threw the dog out the window, and the other cat laughed.
  • After the cat threw the dog out the window, the other cat laughed, but the dog did not die until the parakeet stabbed him.

Conjunctions

CONJUNCTIONS

Coordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating Conjunctions

Conjunctive Adverbs

 Examples:

 for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

 Examples:

after, until, because, though, even though, although, if, as if, after, unless, as, as long as,

as soon as, before, so that

 Examples:

however, therefore, besides, consequently, nevertheless, in addition, accordingly, otherwise

 What they do:

Coordinating conjunctions connect   two independent clauses.

 

 What they do:

Subordinating conjunctions turn independent clauses into dependent clauses. (A dependent clause must be connected to an independent clause to make a “correct” sentence.)

 What they do:

Conjunctive adverbs connect two independent clauses; however, they need stronger punctuation than coordinating conjunctions need.

 How to use them:

The cat threw the dog out the window, and the other cat laughed.

 How to use them:

After the cat threw the dog out the window, the other cat laughed.

The dog died because the cat threw the dog out the window.

Even though the parakeet saw everything, the cat said the dog fell.

 How to use them:

The dog died; consequently, the cat laughed.

The cat threw the dog out the window; accordingly, the dog died.

The parakeet knew what really happened; however, the two cats ate him before he could call the police.