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Citation Guide: Additional Resources/Web Pages

Help with citing your sources for a research paper.

Essential Elements

Include as much of the following information as available when citing Web sites:

  • Name of author(s)
  • Date of publication
  • Name of Web page
  • URL of Web page


- Italicize the name of the Web page. The name of the overall Web site is not needed.

- Capitalize only the first word of the page's title, subtitle, and proper nouns.

- Do not place a period after the page's URL to end the citation. This will corrupt the URL address.

- Try to keep the URL on one line. If it must continue onto another line, be sure to break the URL before a forward slash (/).

Sample Citations - Web Sites

Web Page



Web Page, No Stated Author

If no author can be found, begin the citation with the title of the Web page.


Africa: arts and cultures. (2009). Retrieved from



Web Page, No Date

If the web page has no date of publication or no date updated,  use the notation "n.d."


Victory gardens. (n.d.).  Retrieved from



If the author's full name cannot be found, it is acceptable to use the blogger's screen name.


Lessig, L. (2009, April 26). Architects of openness [Web log message]. Retrieved from

Annoyed Librarian. (2009, July 22). Improving neighborhood libraries [Web log message]. Retrieved from


Personal Communication

No personal communication is included in your reference list; instead, parenthetically cite the communicator's name, the phrase 'personal communication,' and the date of the communication in your main text only. See in-text citation page for examples.