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Citation Guide: Additional Resources/Web Pages

Help with citing your sources for a research paper.

Essential Elements

Include as much of the following information as available when citing Web sites:

  • Name of author(s)
  • Date of publication
  • Name of Web page
  • URL of Web page

Tips

- Italicize the name of the Web page. The name of the overall Web site is not needed.

- Capitalize only the first word of the page's title, subtitle, and proper nouns.

- Do not place a period after the page's URL to end the citation. This will corrupt the URL address.

- Try to keep the URL on one line. If it must continue onto another line, be sure to break the URL before a forward slash (/).

Sample Citations - Web Sites

Web Page

Example:

 


Web Page, No Stated Author

An Author may be

  • An individual
  • multiple people
  • A group (institution, government agency, organization, or
  • a combination of people and groups

If an author cannot be easily established on a website you should try to determine the author from context. For example, an annual report from an organization generally will not have a listed author but in this context the organization is considered the author. In the same way if a page from an organization's website or government website is lacking a stated author then you can consider that organization or department to be the author.

Example:

British Museum (2009). Africa: arts and cultures. Retrieved from http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/world_cultures/africa

         /africa_arts_and_cultures.aspx

 


Web Page, No Date

If the web page has no date of publication or no date updated,  use the notation "n.d."

Example:

Boddy, J., Neumann, T., Jennings,S., Morrow, V., Alderson, P., Rees, R., & Gibson, W. (n.d.). Ethics principles. The Research Ethics Guidebook:

        A Resource for Social Scientists. http://www.ethicsguidebook.ac.uk/EthicsPrinciples

 


Blog

If the author's full name cannot be found, it is acceptable to use the blogger's screen name.

Examples:

​Klymkowsky, M. (2018, September 15). Can we talk scientifically about free will? Sci-Ed. https://blogs.plos.org/scied/

        2018/09/15/can-we-talk-scientifically-about-free-will/

 

Personal Communication

No personal communication is included in your reference list; instead, parenthetically cite the communicator's name, the phrase 'personal communication,' and the date of the communication in your main text only. See in-text citation page for examples.