Include as much of the following information as available when citing Web sites:
- Italicize the name of the Web page. The name of the overall Web site is not needed.
- Capitalize only the first word of the page's title, subtitle, and proper nouns.
- Do not place a period after the page's URL to end the citation. This will corrupt the URL address.
- Try to keep the URL on one line. If it must continue onto another line, be sure to break the URL before a forward slash (/).
Web Page, No Stated Author
If no author can be found, begin the citation with the title of the Web page.
Africa: arts and cultures. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/world_cultures/africa
Web Page, No Date
If the web page has no date of publication or no date updated, use the notation "n.d."
Victory gardens. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe40s/crops_02.html
If the author's full name cannot be found, it is acceptable to use the blogger's screen name.
Lessig, L. (2009, April 26). Architects of openness [Web log message]. Retrieved from
Annoyed Librarian. (2009, July 22). Improving neighborhood libraries [Web log message]. Retrieved from
No personal communication is included in your reference list; instead, parenthetically cite the communicator's name, the phrase 'personal communication,' and the date of the communication in your main text only. See in-text citation page for examples.