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Citation Guide: Additional Resources/Web Pages

Help with citing your sources for a research paper.

Essential Elements

Include as much of the following information as available when citing Web sites:

  • Name of author(s)
  • Date of publication
  • Name of Web page
  • URL of Web page


- Italicize the name of the Web page. The name of the overall Web site is not needed.

- Capitalize only the first word of the page's title, subtitle, and proper nouns.

- Do not place a period after the page's URL to end the citation. This will corrupt the URL address.

- Try to keep the URL on one line. If it must continue onto another line, be sure to break the URL before a forward slash (/).

Sample Citations - Web Sites

Web Page



Web Page, No Stated Author

An Author may be

  • An individual
  • multiple people
  • A group (institution, government agency, organization, or
  • a combination of people and groups

If an author cannot be easily established on a website you should try to determine the author from context. For example, an annual report from an organization generally will not have a listed author but in this context the organization is considered the author. In the same way if a page from an organization's website or government website is lacking a stated author then you can consider that organization or department to be the author.


British Museum (2009). Africa: arts and cultures. Retrieved from



Web Page, No Date

If the web page has no date of publication or no date updated,  use the notation "n.d."


Boddy, J., Neumann, T., Jennings,S., Morrow, V., Alderson, P., Rees, R., & Gibson, W. (n.d.). Ethics principles. The Research Ethics Guidebook:

        A Resource for Social Scientists.



If the author's full name cannot be found, it is acceptable to use the blogger's screen name.


​Klymkowsky, M. (2018, September 15). Can we talk scientifically about free will? Sci-Ed.



Personal Communication

No personal communication is included in your reference list; instead, parenthetically cite the communicator's name, the phrase 'personal communication,' and the date of the communication in your main text only. See in-text citation page for examples.