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Citation Guide: In-Text Citations

Help with citing your sources for a research paper.

In-Text Citations

How to Format In-Text Citations

References in the text should be cited in one of three ways:

  1. by number;
  2. by superscript number;
  3. by author name and date

  • References should be in italics and numbered sequentially.
  • If a reference is cited more than once, it does not receive a new number.
  • If citing more than one reference at a time, include reference numbers in increasing order separated by commas.

Number Example:

...preparing N-(p-nitroaryl)amides (2).

Author Name and Date Example:

...preparing N-(p-nitroaryl)amides (Stern and Cheng, 1995).

Further Examples

Further examples:

Superscript numbers

At the end of the cited information:
Fluoridated water as well as various fluoride products such as toothpaste provide fluoride ions necessary for remineralization.¹

Within the cited information:
Rakita¹ states that fluoridated water as well as various fluoride products such as toothpaste provide fluoride ions necessary for remineralization.

 

Italic numbers

At the end of the cited information:
Fluoridated water as well as various fluoride products such as toothpaste provide fluoride ions necessary for remineralization (1).

Within the cited information:
Rakita (1) states that fluoridated water as well as various fluoride products such as toothpaste provide fluoride ions necessary for remineralization.

 

Author name and year of publication

At the end of the cited information:
Fluoridated water as well as various fluoride products such as toothpaste provide fluoride ions necessary for remineralization (Rakita, 2004).

Within the cited information:
Rakita states that fluoridated water as well as various fluoride products such as toothpaste provide fluoride ions necessary for remineralization (2004).

Note: for two authors use "and": Rakita and Smith. For more than two authors use "et al.": Rakita et al.

(For more detailed information see ACS Style Guide, pp 287-290.)