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Citation Guide: CBE/CSE

Help with citing your sources for a research paper.

CSE Style 2

Paper Format:

→ Margin: 1 inch on all sides

→ Spacing: double space throughout the paper

→ Font: 12 points

→ Header: page header contains abbreviated title and the page number (invisible for page one)

Title Page:

→Full title, writer’s name, name of the course, instructor’s name, and date (all centered)

Abstract:

A single paragraph that describes the writer’s research methods, findings, and conclusions.

Headings:

INTRODUCTION, METHODS, RESULTS, DISCCUSIONS/CONCLUSIONS

→ Distinguish subheadings from headings by the writer’s choice of typography

Acknowledgements:

Give credit to people who contributed to the research project

Cited Reference page:

Center the title Cited References and then list the works cited in the paper.

Three systems of documentation:

  • Citation-Sequence (C-S)
  • Citation-Name (C-N)
  • Name-Year (N-Y)

CSE Style 2

C-S system:

Each source cited in the paper is given a number for the first time it appears in the text.

Example:

Drowning and near-drowning incidents are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in both children 1 and adults 2

→ Any time the source is referred again, the text is marked with the same number.

Example:

The major physiological problem facing drowning victims is hypoxia, or lack of adequate oxygen perfusion to body cells 1,4.

→ At the end of references provides full publication information for each numbered source. Entries in the reference list are numbered in the order in which they are mentioned in the paper.

This means that the in-text citation 1 refers to the first source mentioned in the text.

C-N system:

→ The list of references is first put in alphabetical order and then the entries are numbered in that order.

→ In the text, cite the sources using the number from the reference list.

This means that the in-text citation 1  refers to the first source in the alphabetical list of entries.

N-Y system (similar to APA citation style):

→ The author of the source is named in the text and the year of publication is given in parentheses: (Chen 2004).

→ In the Cited References page, list (but do NOT number) the entries alphabetically.

 

Tips for C-S system or C-N system in-text citations:

Tips for C-S system or C-N system in-text citations:

  1. In the text, use a superscript number to refer to the source.

Example:

Drowning and near-drowning incidents are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in both children 1 and adults 2

***How to make text superscript:

  • Select the text that you want to format as superscript
  • Apply keyboard shortcuts: Press CTRL + SHIFT + =

  1. Separate multiple citations with commas; use a hyphen for a range; put no spaces between numbers.

Example:

In several studies 25,32,41-44 of vaccines…

  1. When you repeat citing the same source, repeat the same number that refers to the corresponding cited source. 

Reference

Data collected from Lingshan Song, Dr. Steve Price, Writing Center