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Citation Guide: How to Format Bibliographical Entries for the Cited Reference Page

Help with citing your sources for a research paper.

How to Format Bibliographical Entries for the Cited Reference Page

Book:

Number. Last name Initial(s). Title of book. Edition [if other than first]. Place: Publisher; year.

Example:

  1. Jaynes ET. Probability theory: the logic of science. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press; 2003.

Journal Article:

Number. Last name Initial(s). Title of article: subtitle. Journal Title Abbrev. Date;volume (issue):pages.

Examples:

  1. Brunzell JD. Hypertriglyceridemia. N Engl J Med. 2007;357 (10):1009-1017.
  2. Wilmers CC, Crabtree RL, Smith D, Murphy KM, Getz WM. Trophic facilitation by introduced top predators: gray wolf subsidies to scavengers in Yellowstone National Park. J Anim Ecol. 2003;72 (3):909-916.

Journal Article from an Online Periodical:

Number. Last name Initial(s). Title of article: subtitle. Journal Title Abbrev [Internet]. Date [cited date];volume (issue):pages. Available from: URL

Example:

  1. Isaacs FJ, Blake WJ, Collins JJ. Signal processing in single cells. Science [Internet]. 2005 Mar 25 [cited 2009 Jun 17];307(5717):1886-1888. Available from: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/307/5717/1886

Article form an Online Database:

Number. Last name Initial(s). Title of article. Title of Publication Abbrev [Internet]. Date [cited date]:pages. Name of Database. Place: Publisher; copyright year. Available from: Publisher’s URL Document No.: Number [if any].

Example:

  1. Morell V. The fragile world of frogs. Natl Geographic [Internet]. 2001 May [cited 2007 Oct 1]:106-123. Expanded Academic ASAP. Farmington Hills (MI): Gale; c2001. Available from: http://www.galegroup.com Document No.: A75434888.

Paper in Published Conference Proceedings:

Number. Last name Initial(s). Title of paper. In: Title of proceedings; date; Place of Conference. Place of Publication: Publisher; year. p. page number(s) of paper.

Example:

  1. Rozell CJ, Johnson DH. Examining methods for estimating mutual information in spiking neural systems. In: Proceedings of the Computational Neuroscience Meeting; 2004 Jul; Baltimore, MD. New York: Plenum; 2005. p. 234-252.

Technical Reports:

Number. Last name Initial(s). Title of report. Edition [if other than first]. Place: Publisher; date. Report No.: number. Available from: Distributor or URL

Example:

  1. Smith DW, Stahler DR, Guernsey Ds, Metz M, Nelson A, Albers E, McIntyre R. Yellowstone wolf project: annual report 2006. Yellowstone National Park (WY): National Park Service, Yellow Center for Resources; 2007. Report No.: YCR-2007-01. Available from: http//www.nps.gov/yell/naturescience/upload/wolfrpt06.pdf

Web Page within a Web Site:

Number. Last name Initial(s) [if any]. Title of Web site [Internet]. Place: Publisher; date of publication or copyright. Title of Web page; publication date of page [cited date]. Available from: URL of Web page

Example:

  1. Amphibiaweb [Internet]. Berkeley (CA): University of California; c2007. Wordwide amphibian declines: how big is the problem, what are the causes and what can be done? 2006 Jun 15 [cited 2007 Jul 25]. Available from: http://amphibiaweb.org/declines/declines.html

Audiovisual Sources (Videos, Sound Recordings)

Number. Last name Initial(s). Title (medium). Place: Publisher; year. Physical description.

Example:

  1. Wilson EO. The future of life: biodiversity in the new millennium [videocassette]. Los Angeles (CA): Into the Classroom Media; c2003. 1 videocassette: 47 min., sound, color.

Personal Communications:

CSE recommends not including personal communications, such as e-mail or unpublished interviews, in the reference list. A parenthetical note in the text usually suffices: (2010 e-mail to me; unreferenced).