Abstract – A brief summary or overview of the main points of a work.
Annotated bibliography – A list of source citations with a summary or brief statement about each.
Bibliography (also References or Works Cited) – An alphabetical list of sources such as books, articles, websites, or other information used to compose a writing project. Includes information such as the title, author, volume and issue, website URL, and date of publication for each source.
Bound periodical – Issues of a journal bound together (usually by volume) in a hard book cover to preserve and organize them for later use.
Citation – A reference to a particular article, book chapter or other source; usually includes at least the title, author, and year of publication. Bibliographies are collections of citations.
Dissertation – A research project required to earn a doctoral degree.
Expository text – Explains, clarifies, and organizes information on a topic.
Microfiche – Small plastic sheets containing tiny images of books, newspapers, and other materials that require a microform reader for viewing and printing.
Microfilm – Rolls of film containing tiny images of books, newspapers, and other materials that require a microform reader for viewing and printing.
Original research article - An article written by the researchers that explains the research and its findings.
Parenthetical citation – Source citations within the text of a written work that point the reader to the original source of the information, listed in detail in the Bibliography, References, or Works Cited at the end of the work.
Peer-reviewed journal (also Refereed journal) – A journal that uses a panel of subject experts (the “peers” of the authors submitting articles) to review and select articles for publication in the journal, according to its publication standards.
Periodical – A magazine or journal published at regular intervals.
Primary source – An artifact or document from the time period in which an event occurred.
Qualitative research – Research that involves analysis through observation and interpretation. Data may be in the form of observation or artifacts. Qualitative research seeks to describe and interpret.
Quantitative research – Research using data in the form of numerical data and statistical models. Quantitative research seeks to accurately measure or count.
Review article – An article that offers an overview of research in subject area to-date.
Secondary source – An analysis or commentary on an event after it has passed.
Thesis – A research project required to earn a master’s degree.
Thesis statement – A statement at the beginning of a paper that explains what the paper is about. For research, it might also state the results of the study.